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Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Intrauterine growth restriction
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Neonatal herpes simplex
Congenital rubella syndrome
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
Amenorrhea: Pathology Review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
0 / 32 complete
0 / 14 complete
breast cancer p. 727
breast cancer and p. 674
breast cancer and p. 674
hypercalcemia and p. 221
incidence/mortality of p. 202
key associations p. 731
oncogenes and p. 222
paclitaxel for p. 449
paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and p. 221
postmenopausal women p. 727
tamoxifen for p. 450
trastuzumab for p. 450
tumor suppressor genes and p. 222
aromatase inhibitors for p. 680
breastfeeding and p. 652
hormonal contraception contraindication p. 681
benign breast tumors p. 673
breast cancer p. 674
malignant breast tumors p. 674
breast cancer risks p. 674
for breast cancer p. 727
Robyn Hughes, MScBMC
Kaia Chessen, MScBMC
Jahnavi Narayanan, MBBS
Sam Gillespie, BSc
Breast cancer, or breast carcinoma, is an uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells within the breast. It’s the second most common cancer in women, but can also, on rare occasion, affect men as well.
Breast cancer is also the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women after lung cancer. This is largely due to the fact that oftentimes breast cancers don’t cause any pain or discomfort until they’ve spread to nearby tissues.
The breasts are milk-producing glands that sit on the chest wall, on either side of the breast-bone. They lie on top of the ribs and the pectoral muscles, and they’re divided into three main parts.
The glandular tissue that makes the milk, is made up of 15 to 20 lobules. Inside each of these lie a bunch of grape-like structures called the alveoli, which are modified sweat glands surrounded by a basement membrane made largely of collagen.
Zooming in on the alveoli, there’s a layer of alveolar cells that secrete breast milk into the lumen which is the space in the center of the gland.
Wrapping around the alveolus are special myoepithelial cells that squeeze down and push the milk out of the lumen of the alveolus, down the lactiferous ducts, and out one of the pores on the nipple.
Now, surrounding the glandular tissue is the stroma, which contains adipose or fat tissue, and this makes up the majority of the breast.
Suspensory ligaments called Cooperʼs ligaments, run through the stroma and help keep it in place. These ligaments attach to the inner surface of the breast skin on one end and the pectoralis muscles on the other.
Just below the skin over the breast, there’s a network of tiny lymphatic vessels that drain the lymph, which is a fluid containing cellular waste products and white blood cells. These lymphatic vessels mainly drain into a group of lymph nodes in the axilla, or the armpit.
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