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Apnea of prematurity
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Upper respiratory tract infection
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
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Asthma & Bronchiectasis
bronchiectasis p. 696
Aspergillus fumigatus p. , 150
cystic fibrosis p. 58
Kartagener syndrome p. 47, 722
Bronchiectasis can be broken down into “Bronchi” which refers to the bronchi and bronchiole airways of the lower lungs, and “-ectasis” means a dilation or expansion.
So in bronchiectasis chronic inflammation causes the bronchi and bronchioles to get damaged and dilated. Bronchiectasis is an obstructive lung disease, and that’s largely because the inflammation causes mucus plugs to form in the airways, and those mucus plugs obstruct airflow.
Normally, when taking a breath, the diaphragm muscle moves down and that creates negative pressure within the chest. This draws air in through the mouth or nose, and down the trachea.
Once there it goes into one of the primary bronchi or main bronchi, then secondary bronchi or lobar bronchus, then tertiary bronchi or segmental bronchus, and finally into the bronchioles which lead into the alveoli.
The alveoli is where the majority of gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
Taking a closer look at the airways, particularly the walls of the airways, they’ve got elastin fibers, which help give them their rubber-band like properties, and are lined with epithelial cells - some of which have brush-like projections, called cilia on their surface and others that secrete mucus.
The mucus traps foreign particles like bacteria and dust, and the mucus then gets swept upwards and out of the lungs by the cilia.
Together this whole system is called the mucociliary escalator.
Eventually that mucus and any stuck particles move into the esophagus and get swallowed and destroyed by the acid in the stomach! That’s right - you’re swallowing that mucus as you watch this.
Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi and the bronchioles, which damages the mucociliary escalator and the walls of the airways. This causes mucus to accumulate and get stuck in the airways, and form mucus plugs that can lead to serious infections, difficulty breathing, and a variety of other health problems. Common causes of bronchiectasis include long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, respiratory infections such as pneumonia, and cystic fibrosis.
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