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Prerequisite basic sciences
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
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cytochrome P-448 and p. 253
therapeutic index of p. 235
In obstructive lung diseases like asthma, individuals suffer from reversible narrowing of the airways, medications like bronchodilators are helpful in keeping the airways open.
In this video, we’ll focus on the leukotriene modifying agents and methylxanthines.
In the bronchioles you’ve got the lumen, the mucosa, which includes the inner lining of epithelial cells, as well as the lamina propria which contains many cells like the type 2 helper T cells, B cells, and mast cells.
Surrounding the lamina propria, there is a layer of smooth muscles and submucosa.
The submucosal layer contains mucus-secreting glands and blood vessels.
Now, the molecular pathway that leads to asthma is actually pretty complex but it is often initiated by an environmental trigger.
Allergens from environmental triggers, like air pollutants or cigarette smoke, are picked up by dendritic cells which present them to a type 2 helper T cell or Th2 cell in the lamina propria. These cells then produce cytokines like IL-4 and IL-5 which causes the inflammatory response.
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