00:00 / 00:00
Major depressive disorder
Seasonal affective disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Body dysmorphic disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Autism spectrum disorder
Shaken baby syndrome
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
0 / 6 complete
0 / 1 complete
0 / 1 complete
Tanner Marshall, MS
When people are stressed they sometimes clench their jaw and grind their teeth.
This is called bruxism. Bruxism can happen day or night, with episodes sometimes lasting a few days, but other times going on for months.
Usually, it’s long-term teeth-grinding that can really cause problems.
Grinding the top and bottom teeth together can lead to something called dental abfraction.
This loss of tooth structure and general dental attrition occurs as the biting surfaces of each tooth are flattened out.
Over time, this can wear away the protective outer surface of the tooth, called the enamel, revealing the much more sensitive dentin below, leading to tooth hypersensitivity and increased risk of cavities.
In its most severe forms, bruxism can even cause teeth to fracture, loosen, or even fall out, and the constant grinding can also cause damage to existing dental work like crowns and fillings.
Occasionally people with bruxism bite their tongue as well, which can lead to a crenated or scalloped tongue marked by tooth-shaped indentations.
People with bruxism sometimes have canker sores from chewing their lips and inner cheeks, too.
Bruxism can also lead to temporomandibular joint disorder, or TMJ, which involves the temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles; these muscles help with chewing by working together to move the mandible or jawbone.
Clenching these muscles over and over can be tiring and painful, particularly in the preauricular area right in front of the ear, causing headaches around the temples.
Bruxism can also lead to inflammation of the periodontal ligaments, the tiny ligaments that attach each tooth to the bony socket they’re nestled in, which can make chewing quite painful.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties
Cookies are used by this site.
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.