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Bacterial structure and functions
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep)
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Bartonella henselae (Cat-scratch disease and Bacillary angiomatosis)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever)
Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever)
Yersinia pestis (Plague)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Bordetella pertussis (Whooping cough)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis)
Mycobacterium avium complex (NORD)
Gardnerella vaginalis (Bacterial vaginosis)
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Borrelia species (Relapsing fever)
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
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Campylobacter jejuni p. , 143
Campylobacter jejuni p. , 143, 147
Gram-negative algorithm p. 139
Guillain-Barré syndrome p. 540
With Campylobacter jejuni, “campylo” means curved, “bacter” means rod, while “jejuni” refers to the jejunum, which is a segment of the small intestines found between the duodenum and the ileum.
So, Campylobacter jejuni is a comma-shaped bacteria, and it’s one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide.
It's commonly found in foods like poultry, and unpasteurized milk.
Now, let’s talk microbe anatomy and physiology. Campylobacter jejuni is a comma-shaped bacteria that has a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which doesn’t take in the purple dye when Gram stained, and instead appears pink or red – which makes it a gram-negative bacteria.
It also has a flagellum at one end which it uses to get around, so it’s a motile bacteria.
In addition to this, it’s oxidase-positive, meaning that it can use oxygen to create stored energy or ATP.
Lastly, Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophile that loves warmth, so it grows best in low-oxygen environments, at 42 degrees Celsius, on blood agar varieties like Skirrow, Butzler, and Campy-BAP.
Alright, Campylobacter jejuni is usually transmitted from animals to humans, via the fecal-oral route.
In other words, you catch it by ingesting stool particles containing the bacteria.
Campylobacter jejuni usually resides in the gastrointestinal tract of birds.
So, when people eat raw and undercooked poultry, there's a possibility of infection.
Similarly, cows are common carriers, so people that drink unpasteurized milk can also risk infection.
There’s also direct contact with infected pets, notably puppies which excrete the bacteria in their stool.
Kids are the most susceptible to getting infected after playing with an infected pet.
Lastly, infected stool can end up in sources of freshwater, like rivers, and cause infection.
Once inside our body, Campylobacter jejuni has a number of virulence factors that it can use to attach to host cells and cause disease.
First, it has fimbriae-like filaments and cell surface proteins like PEB1 and CadF that help it attach to the mucosa of the small intestine and colon.
Campylobacter jejuni is a comma-shaped gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacteria commonly found in poultry and other animals. It can cause a foodborne illness called campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening complications like sepsis. Campylobacter jejuni is most commonly spread through the feco-oral route, usually by ingesting contaminated food or water. Treatment for campylobacteriosis includes antibiotics and supportive care. Prevention of this infection includes proper hand hygiene and safe food preparation practices.
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