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Integumentary system

Pigmented skin disorders



Acneiform skin disorders

Acne vulgaris



Hidradenitis suppurativa

Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders

Contact dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis

Lichen planus

Pityriasis rosea


Seborrhoeic dermatitis


Keratotic skin disorders

Actinic keratosis

Vesiculobullous skin disorders

Epidermolysis bullosa

Bullous pemphigoid

Pemphigus vulgaris

Desquamating skin disorders

Erythema multiforme

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Skin integrity disorders

Pressure ulcer




Skin infections




Necrotizing fasciitis

Human papillomavirus

Varicella zoster virus

Poxvirus (Smallpox and Molluscum contagiosum)


Herpes simplex virus


Malassezia (Tinea versicolor and Seborrhoeic dermatitis)

Pediculus humanus and Phthirus pubis (Lice)

Sarcoptes scabiei (Scabies)

Human herpesvirus 6 (Roseola)

Parvovirus B19

Varicella zoster virus

Measles virus

Rubella virus

Skin neoplasms

Vascular tumors

Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)


Skin cancer

Hair and nail disorders

Alopecia areata

Telogen effluvium


Integumentary system pathology review

Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review

Acneiform skin disorders: Pathology review

Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review

Vesiculobullous and desquamating skin disorders: Pathology review

Skin cancer: Pathology review

Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review

Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review




0 / 14 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

12 pages



of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 50-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department due to a change in mental status. The patient has a history of large B-cell lymphoma and is currently being treated with chemotherapy.  Her last chemotherapy session was five days ago. Temperature is 38.3 C° (101 F° ), pulse is 100/min, respiratory rate is 20/min, and blood pressure is 80/50 mmHg. Physical examination is significant for oral thrush and warm extremities. A complete blood profile shows a leukocyte count of 1500 cells/mm3 and an absolute neutrophil count of 100/mm3. Blood and urine cultures are obtained. The patient is started on intravenous fluids, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and micafungin. She is admitted to the intensive care unit for further management. The patient dies the next day. An autopsy is performed, and the causative organism is identified on tissue histology, as shown below. Which clinical presentations are caused by the same pathogen resulting in this patient’s illness?
 Reproduced from Wikimedia Commons  

External References

First Aid








Candida spp.

amphotericin B p. 196

azoles p. 196

catalase-positive organism p. 125

echinocandins p. 197

immunodeficiency infections p. 116

osteomyelitis p. 177

tricuspid valve endocarditis and p. 321

vulvovaginitis p. 179

Candida albicans p. , 150

HIV-positive adults p. 174

T cell dysfunction p. 114

treatment p. 723

Diaper rash

Candida albicans p. , 150

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans and p. 150


Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans p. , 150, 723

Amphotericin B p. 195

Candida albicans p. , 150, 723


Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans p. , 723

Immunocompromised patients

Candida albicans in p. 150


Candida albicans in p. 150

Nystatin p. 196

Candida albicans p. , 150, 723

Substance abuse

Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans p. , 150

External Links



Marisa Pedron

Kara Lukasiewicz, PhD, MScBMC

Tanner Marshall, MS

Candida is a yeast, not the maple syrup-loving country in North America - although Candida can be found in Canada as well!

Candida sometimes causes a mild yeast infection, but in some situations, can get into the bloodstream and cause severe illness.

Now, there are various types of Candida species, and over twenty of them cause disease in humans - C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. auris, the list goes on.

Of these, the most common one is C. albicans. Candida is found throughout the body; it likes warm, moist environments like the mouth, the diaper region of babies, and in women it can be found in the vagina.

Now, it’s normal for microbes - bacteria, fungi, and viruses - to live all over the body, but each microbe is slightly different in terms of whether it’s colonizing the body - in other words just living and not causing any problems, or whether it’s infecting the body, causing some degree of tissue damage or destruction.

An important factor is exactly how much of a microbe is present.

Candida is considered an opportunistic microbe.

When the amount of Candida is relatively low, it's harmless.

But if a person’s immune system is weakened or if there’s less competition for the Candida, then the amount of Candida can increase - and that’s called Candida overgrowth.

Now, Candida can exist in multiple forms - it’s a bit like a chameleon.

Sometimes the cells can appear round or oval and these are called yeast cells, other times it can appear like hyphae where it looks like long thin filaments - kind of like a segmented cactus plant.

It can also take an in-between appearance called pseudohyphae.

Each of these morphologies or “looks” reflect the same Candida cells that are expressing different protein profiles, and they give the cells different properties.

When the Candida is in “yeast mode” it’s better at moving from one part of the body to another, whereas when it’s in “filamentous mode” it’s better at invading tissues.


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