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Systemic fungal infections

Coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis



Opportunistic fungal infections

Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pneumocystis pneumonia)



Aspergillus fumigatus

Sporothrix schenckii

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cutaneous fungal infections

Malassezia (Tinea versicolor and Seborrhoeic dermatitis)




0 / 14 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

12 pages



of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 50-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department due to a change in mental status. The patient has a history of large B-cell lymphoma and is currently being treated with chemotherapy.  Her last chemotherapy session was five days ago. Temperature is 38.3 C° (101 F° ), pulse is 100/min, respiratory rate is 20/min, and blood pressure is 80/50 mmHg. Physical examination is significant for oral thrush and warm extremities. A complete blood profile shows a leukocyte count of 1500 cells/mm3 and an absolute neutrophil count of 100/mm3. Blood and urine cultures are obtained. The patient is started on intravenous fluids, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and micafungin. She is admitted to the intensive care unit for further management. The patient dies the next day. An autopsy is performed, and the causative organism is identified on tissue histology, as shown below. Which clinical presentations are caused by the same pathogen resulting in this patient’s illness?
 Reproduced from Wikimedia Commons  

External References

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Candida spp.

amphotericin B p. 196

azoles p. 196

catalase-positive organism p. 125

echinocandins p. 197

immunodeficiency infections p. 116

osteomyelitis p. 177

tricuspid valve endocarditis and p. 321

vulvovaginitis p. 179

Candida albicans p. , 150

HIV-positive adults p. 174

T cell dysfunction p. 114

treatment p. 723

Diaper rash

Candida albicans p. , 150

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans and p. 150


Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans p. , 150, 723

Amphotericin B p. 195

Candida albicans p. , 150, 723


Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans p. , 723

Immunocompromised patients

Candida albicans in p. 150


Candida albicans in p. 150

Nystatin p. 196

Candida albicans p. , 150, 723

Substance abuse

Candida albicans p. , 150


Candida albicans p. , 150

External Links



Marisa Pedron

Kara Lukasiewicz, PhD, MScBMC

Tanner Marshall, MS

Candida is a yeast, not the maple syrup-loving country in North America - although Candida can be found in Canada as well!

Candida sometimes causes a mild yeast infection, but in some situations, can get into the bloodstream and cause severe illness.

Now, there are various types of Candida species, and over twenty of them cause disease in humans - C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. auris, the list goes on.

Of these, the most common one is C. albicans. Candida is found throughout the body; it likes warm, moist environments like the mouth, the diaper region of babies, and in women it can be found in the vagina.

Now, it’s normal for microbes - bacteria, fungi, and viruses - to live all over the body, but each microbe is slightly different in terms of whether it’s colonizing the body - in other words just living and not causing any problems, or whether it’s infecting the body, causing some degree of tissue damage or destruction.

An important factor is exactly how much of a microbe is present.

Candida is considered an opportunistic microbe.

When the amount of Candida is relatively low, it's harmless.

But if a person’s immune system is weakened or if there’s less competition for the Candida, then the amount of Candida can increase - and that’s called Candida overgrowth.

Now, Candida can exist in multiple forms - it’s a bit like a chameleon.

Sometimes the cells can appear round or oval and these are called yeast cells, other times it can appear like hyphae where it looks like long thin filaments - kind of like a segmented cactus plant.

It can also take an in-between appearance called pseudohyphae.

Each of these morphologies or “looks” reflect the same Candida cells that are expressing different protein profiles, and they give the cells different properties.

When the Candida is in “yeast mode” it’s better at moving from one part of the body to another, whereas when it’s in “filamentous mode” it’s better at invading tissues.


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