00:00 / 00:00
Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
0 / 18 complete
Carcinoid Treatment - Tammy's Story - The Nebraska Medical Center
Carcinoid Tumor & Small Bowel Neoplasms
bronchial carcinoid tumors p. 703
somatostatin for p. 360
treatment p. 725
carcinoid syndrome p. 355
in carcinoid syndrome p. 355
carcinoid syndrome p. 588
carcinoid syndrome p. 357
for carcinoid syndrome p. 725
in carcinoid syndrome p. 354
carcinoid syndrome as cause p. 357
Carcinoid syndrome refers to a constellation of symptoms like diarrhea, shortness of breath and flushing, which arise when a specific type of tumor called a neuroendocrine tumor begins secreting hormones.
Neuroendocrine tumors were also called “carcinoid tumors” in the past, because of their association with carcinoid syndrome.
Neuroendocrine cells are found in tissues throughout the body, particularly in the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal organs and the lungs. They receive signals from nerve cells and, in response, they release hormones into the blood.
Neuroendocrine cells release a variety of hormones including amines, like serotonin and histamine; polypeptides, like bradykinin, a vasodilator; and prostaglandins which are also powerful vasodilators. The production of these hormones can also be regulated by other hormones.
For example, somatostatin is a hormone that’s made by cells in the hypothalamus as well as the gastrointestinal tract, and it travels through the blood and binds to receptors on the surface of neuroendocrine cells.
Binding of somatostatin inhibits the release of a number of hormones from neuroendocrine cells, including serotonin.
Now, when serotonin does get released from neuroendocrine cells, it enters the liver through the portal vein.
In the liver, some of the serotonin is metabolized to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid which is eliminated from the body through the urine.
The remaining serotonin is not metabolized, and this portion remains in the systemic circulation where it has various effects.
In the gastrointestinal tract, serotonin increases motility and peristalsis; in the vasculature, platelets take up the serotonin and later use it to constrict blood vessels, particularly after injury; and in the connective tissue of the heart, it stimulates fibroblasts which make lots of collagen.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.