00:00 / 00:00
Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Rheumatic heart disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Transposition of the great vessels
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Aortic valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Tricuspid valve disease
Coronary steal syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
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Two people came to the clinic one day. Kara is a 66 year old woman who came to the clinic after noticing gradually developing left arm swelling and redness over the past 3 months. Physical examination reveals a tender purplish lesion along the left armpit. She has a history of hypertension, diabetes, and breast cancer that was treated 10 years ago with a modified radical mastectomy and radiation therapy.
Klay is a healthy 1 year old infant brought by his parents due to a rapidly growing “red bump” on his face. He has no history of trauma, and the lesion didn’t appear elsewhere. Physical examination reveals a raised, bright red nodule on the left side of his face and no other abnormal findings.
Now, both Kara and Klay have vascular tumors. There are many types so it’s best to classify them into benign and malignant tumors. Starting with the most common benign vascular tumor in children; the strawberry hemangioma, where Hemangioma means a benign tumor of the blood vessels. A strawberry hemangioma appears as a superficial, bright red skin lesion that looks kind of like a strawberry, and it commonly affects the face. Histologically, these lesions are confined to the epidermis. Now a typical strawberry hemangioma develops in infancy and grows pretty fast, but fortunately, it goes away on its own by 5 to 10 years of age. So in terms of management, exams like to bring up a very concerned parent, but the correct answer will almost always be to reassure the parent that the lesion will regress without treatment.
Now, a related disorder is cherry hemangioma, which is the most common benign vascular tumor in adults. This tumor appears dark red, like a cherry. Histologically, this lesion extends to the superficial papillary dermis, so they reach much deeper than strawberry hemangiomas. These tumors increase in frequency with age, and unlike strawberry hemangiomas, they do not regress spontaneously.
Cavernous hemangiomas are soft, bluish lesions, and unlike strawberry and cherry hemangiomas, they are usually seated in the deep dermis. The word “cavernous” means cavern-like. So it’s not surprising that histologically, these appear as large, endothelium-lined spaces filled with red blood cells. Cavernous hemangiomas can also be located in organs like the liver, spleen or even the brain. Also, Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition that causes numerous tumors and cysts throughout the body, one of these being cavernous hemangiomas of the cerebellum and retina. Look for a history of bilateral pheochromocytoma or renal cell carcinoma.
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