Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review


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Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Cardiovascular system

Vascular disorders

Arterial disease

Angina pectoris

Stable angina

Unstable angina

Myocardial infarction

Prinzmetal angina

Coronary steal syndrome

Peripheral artery disease

Subclavian steal syndrome


Aortic dissection


Behcet's disease

Kawasaki disease


Hypertensive emergency

Renal artery stenosis

Coarctation of the aorta

Cushing syndrome

Conn syndrome


Polycystic kidney disease


Orthostatic hypotension


Familial hypercholesterolemia



Chronic venous insufficiency


Deep vein thrombosis




Vascular tumors

Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)


Congenital heart defects

Truncus arteriosus

Transposition of the great vessels

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Tetralogy of Fallot

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Patent ductus arteriosus

Ventricular septal defect

Coarctation of the aorta

Atrial septal defect

Cardiac arrhythmias

Atrial flutter

Atrial fibrillation

Premature atrial contraction

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Ventricular tachycardia

Brugada syndrome

Premature ventricular contraction

Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes

Ventricular fibrillation

Atrioventricular block

Bundle branch block

Pulseless electrical activity

Valvular disorders

Tricuspid valve disease

Pulmonary valve disease

Mitral valve disease

Aortic valve disease


Dilated cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Heart failure

Heart failure

Cor pulmonale

Cardiac infections



Rheumatic heart disease

Pericardial disorders

Pericarditis and pericardial effusion

Cardiac tamponade

Dressler syndrome

Cardiac tumors

Cardiac tumors

Cardiovascular system pathology review

Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Pathology review

Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review

Valvular heart disease: Pathology review

Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review

Heart failure: Pathology review

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review

Pericardial disease: Pathology review

Endocarditis: Pathology review

Hypertension: Pathology review

Shock: Pathology review

Vasculitis: Pathology review

Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Dyslipidemias: Pathology review


Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 15-year-old boy is being evaluated in the clinic after passing out in school during physical activity class. Medical history is significant for hyperactivity and behavioral problems since childhood. He often gets into fights, talks back to his teachers and has low performance in school. A recent IQ test evaluation was 71. Physical examination reveals a cardiac murmur. An echo is obtained and reveals a cardiac mass. Which of the following additional findings is most likely to be found on further evaluation of this patient?  

Memory Anchors and Partner Content


Content Reviewers

Antonia Syrnioti, MD


Kaylee Neff

Two people came to the clinic one day. Kara is a 66 year old woman who came to the clinic after noticing gradually developing left arm swelling and redness over the past 3 months. Physical examination reveals a tender purplish lesion along the left armpit. She has a history of hypertension, diabetes, and breast cancer that was treated 10 years ago with a modified radical mastectomy and radiation therapy.

Klay is a healthy 1 year old infant brought by his parents due to a rapidly growing “red bump” on his face. He has no history of trauma, and the lesion didn’t appear elsewhere. Physical examination reveals a raised, bright red nodule on the left side of his face and no other abnormal findings.

Now, both Kara and Klay have vascular tumors. There are many types so it’s best to classify them into benign and malignant tumors. Starting with the most common benign vascular tumor in children; the strawberry hemangioma, where Hemangioma means a benign tumor of the blood vessels. A strawberry hemangioma appears as a superficial, bright red skin lesion that looks kind of like a strawberry, and it commonly affects the face. Histologically, these lesions are confined to the epidermis. Now a typical strawberry hemangioma develops in infancy and grows pretty fast, but fortunately, it goes away on its own by 5 to 10 years of age. So in terms of management, exams like to bring up a very concerned parent, but the correct answer will almost always be to reassure the parent that the lesion will regress without treatment.

Now, a related disorder is cherry hemangioma, which is the most common benign vascular tumor in adults. This tumor appears dark red, like a cherry. Histologically, this lesion extends to the superficial papillary dermis, so they reach much deeper than strawberry hemangiomas. These tumors increase in frequency with age, and unlike strawberry hemangiomas, they do not regress spontaneously.

Cavernous hemangiomas are soft, bluish lesions, and unlike strawberry and cherry hemangiomas, they are usually seated in the deep dermis. The word “cavernous” means cavern-like. So it’s not surprising that histologically, these appear as large, endothelium-lined spaces filled with red blood cells. Cavernous hemangiomas can also be located in organs like the liver, spleen or even the brain. Also, Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition that causes numerous tumors and cysts throughout the body, one of these being cavernous hemangiomas of the cerebellum and retina. Look for a history of bilateral pheochromocytoma or renal cell carcinoma.


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