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Cardiovascular system anatomy and physiology
Lymphatic system anatomy and physiology
Abnormal heart sounds
Normal heart sounds
Changes in pressure-volume loops
Cardiac and vascular function curves
Altering cardiac and vascular function curves
Law of Laplace
Measuring cardiac output (Fick principle)
Stroke volume, ejection fraction, and cardiac output
Physiological changes during exercise
Cardiovascular changes during hemorrhage
Cardiovascular changes during postural change
Cardiac conduction velocity
Electrical conduction in the heart
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
Control of blood flow circulation
Microcirculation and Starling forces
Blood pressure, blood flow, and resistance
Compliance of blood vessels
Laminar flow and Reynolds number
Pressures in the cardiovascular system
Resistance to blood flow
Action potentials in myocytes
Action potentials in pacemaker cells
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling
Excitability and refractory periods
Cardiac Cycle - Diastole
Cardiac Cycle - Systole
A cardiac cycle is the sequence of mechanical and electrical events that occurs with every heartbeat. Now, the heart is shaped like a cone and it contains two upper chambers, called atria; and two lower chambers, called ventricles.
Now, the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins; while the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from all of our organs and tissues via the superior and inferior vena cava.
From the atria, the blood flows into the lower chambers of the heart: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to all our organs and tissues via the aorta; and the right ventricle, which pumps the deoxygenated blood back to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries.
Alright, so each heartbeat consists of two phases: systole, which is when the heart contracts and pumps blood out of the ventricles; and diastole, which is when the heart relaxes and ventricles fill with blood. Now, the cardiac cycle graph is used to express events during one cardiac cycle.
Along the y-axis are aortic pressure, left atrial pressure, and left ventricular pressure, heart sounds, ventricular volume, right atrial pressure curve, and ECG; while along the x-axis is time.
But, before we continue, here’s something to keep in mind: since there are no valves separating the right atrium from the superior vena cava and the jugular veins, the jugular venous pulse will follow the same pressure changes as the ones that arise in the right atrium.
The cardiac cycle is a repeating process by which the heart pumps blood into circulation. It consists of two phases: the diastole (relaxation) phase and the systole (contraction) phase.
During diastole, major events include isovolumetric ventricular relaxation and ventricular filling, which enables the heart to relax and ventricles to get filled with blood. During systole, the main events are isovolumetric ventricular contraction and systolic ejection, meaning the heart contracts and pumps the blood out of the ventricles.
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