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Eyes, ears, nose and throat


Eye disorders
Ear disorders
Vestibular disorders
Nasal and nasopharyngeal disorders
Oral cavity and oropharyngeal disorders
Laryngeal disorders
Thyroid and parathyroid gland disorders
Eyes, ears, nose and throat pathology review



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High Yield Notes
13 pages


11 flashcards

USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

2 questions

A 71-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician with visual changes. The patient has been seeing colored halos around lights for the past six months and has also noticed her vision has become progressively blurrier. Since symptom onset, she has not experienced any pain or conjunctival erythema. Past medical history is notable for type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma. She is currently retired but formerly worked as a national park ranger. Temperature is 37.7°C (99.9°F), blood pressure is 151/83 mmHg, and pulse is 76/min. Visual acuity is 20/20 in the right eye and 20/70 in the left eye. A slit-lamp examination is shown below. Which of the following is the most common risk factor for the development of this patient’s condition?
Image reproduced from Wikimedia Commons

External References

A cataract is a condition in which the eye becomes cloudy and opacified, affecting ones s vision. Cataracts can be congenital, meaning people are born with them. Congenital cataracts usually result from congenital infections or some genetic or metabolic conditions. Cataracts can also be acquired, usually in individuals with advanced age. Acquired cataracts develop slowly and can occur in one or both eyes. Over time, they become more dense and yellowed and can eventually cause blindness. Common risk factors for acquired cataracts include old age, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, eye infection, or trauma. Risk is also increased in people with Diabetes Mellitus or in people whose eyes are exposed to radiation such as ultraviolet.