Summary of Causality
Causality is a statistical relationship that implies an effect has a specific cause. Some factors in causal relationships are necessary and sufficient to produce the related disease, while others are not. The U.S. Surgeon General and an expert committee delineated nine criteria that are used to judge whether an observed association is causal. These include strength of association, temporality, biologic plausibility, dose-response relationship, replication of findings, consideration of alternate explanations, cessation of exposure, consistency with other knowledge, and specificity.
Flashcards on Causality
A cross-sectional study (can/cannot) establish causality between a risk factor and disease.