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Organ system histology
Central nervous system histology
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The neuron is the basic working unit of the nervous system.
The central neuroglia includes astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia.
The peripheral neuroglia includes Schwann cells, satellite cells, and a number of cells associated with specific organs.
The difference in appearance is from the lipid-rich myelin sheaths that cover the axons present in white matter.
Whereas the grey matter consists mostly of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, astrocytes, and microglial cells.
In this high power image of white matter from the spinal cord, the axons are surrounded by clear white space, which is where the myelin was present before the tissue was processed to create this slide.
One the other hand, the spinal cord has the opposite arrangement, with white matter mainly in the periphery and grey matter mostly located closer to the center, forming an “H” or butterfly-shaped appearance when looking at a cross-section of the spinal cord.
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is enveloped by three layers of meninges, consisting of connective tissue and blood vessels. Beneath the meninges is the pia mater, a thin layer of connective tissue that supports and protects the brain's delicate nerve cells. The arachnoid mater, a web-like sheath, surrounds the pia mater.
The CNS consists of two major types of cells: neurons and glial cells. Neurons are responsible for transmitting electrical signals throughout the body. Glial cells of the CNS include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia. Glial cells support and protect neurons, provide nutrients, and remove waste products from their vicinity.
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