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Bacterial structure and functions
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep)
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Bartonella henselae (Cat-scratch disease and Bacillary angiomatosis)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever)
Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever)
Yersinia pestis (Plague)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis/Whooping cough)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid)
Gardnerella vaginalis (Bacterial vaginosis)
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Borrelia species (Relapsing fever)
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
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pneumonia p. 176
Now, Chlamydia pneumoniae is classically considered Gram-negative, because it can't retain the crystal violet dye used during gram staining.
Additionally, it has an outer lipopolysaccharide membrane which all Gram-negative bacteria also have. However, other Gram-negative bacteria also have a thin peptidoglycan layer under the lipopolysaccharide membrane, whereas Chlamydia pneumoniae doesn’t.
Without it, Chlamydia can’t retain the pink safranin dye used during Gram staining, so they’re not technically Gram-negative either, which is why they’re more correctly called atypical bacteria.
To visualize them, a Giemsa stain is required, which makes them look blue or reddish blue.
Now, Chlamydia pneumoniae is non-motile and round-shaped, and is also an obligate aerobe, meaning that they depend on oxygen for survival.
Additionally, Chlamydia pneumoniae are obligate intracellular pathogens which means they are unable to generate ATP so they rely on other cells for energy.
So, this means that they can’t grow on artificial mediums but rather, require a host cell for culture.
Ok now, when C. pneumoniae enters a host cell, it undergoes a life cycle that alternates between two distinct forms.
The first is the small spore-looking form called the elementary body, and it’s the infective form of this bacteria.
Chlamydia pneumonia (also known as chlamydophila pneumoniae) is a round-shaped non-motile bacteria, and an obligate intracellular pathogen because they live inside host cells to survive. Chlamydia pneumoniae is known to cause pneumonia, as its name suggests, but it has also been associated with atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and asthma exacerbations. The symptoms of Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia are usually mild fever, sore throat, and dry cough.
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