Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)


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Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Osteoporosis medications


Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 5 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 73-year-old woman comes to the emergency department due to fever and chest pain that worsens when she lies down. She also reports fatigue and anorexia for the past five weeks, though she has remained thirsty. She has had hypertension for the past 20 years, which is currently being managed with lisinopril and furosemide. Her temperature is 37.7°C (99.9°F), pulse is 84/min, respirations are 18/min, and blood pressure is 167/98 mm Hg. Physical examination shows a pale, frail, ill-appearing lady. She has flaking skin on her arms and legs that look like they have been scratched extensively. On auscultation, heart sounds are muffled. Which of the following is the best next step in management?


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Anca-Elena Stefan, MD

Sam Gillespie, BSc

Chronic kidney disease, or CKD, describes a decrease in kidney function with an estimated glomerular filtration rate—or eGFR—below 60 milliliters per minute per 1.73 square meters, that happens over a minimum of three months, regardless of the cause.

Now, if there’s already kidney damage- like with glomerular disease, tubulointerstitial disease, vascular disease or congenital renal disease- but the eGFR is above 60 milliliters per minute per 1.73 square meters, then this is still CKD, because all these conditions progressively affect the renal function and over time, without treatment, eGFR decreases.

Now, the causes of CKD can be split into three categories: prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes.

Prerenal CKD causes are due to a decrease in renal perfusion like in heart failure and cirrhosis.

Intrarenal CKD causes can be further classified into renal vascular disease, glomerular disease and tubulointerstitial disease.

Renal vascular disease includes hypertension and renal artery stenosis.

Glomerular diseases include nephritic and nephrotic diseases.

And tubulointerstitial disease includes polycystic kidney disease.

Other causes of intrarenal CKD are nephrotoxic substances like lead and certain medications like cisplatin.

Finally, there’s postrenal CKD, which is most commonly caused by prostate disease.

Also, repeated episodes of pyelonephritis can lead to CKD.

Diagnosing CKD usually requires having past measurements of the eGFR, albuminuria or proteinuria and past urine dipstick and sediment examinations.

If that isn’t possible, the individual needs to have multiple assessments over a period of three months to confirm that the problem is chronic.

That means getting a serum creatinine to calculate the eGFR, along with urinalysis- both by dipstick and microscopy- to identify any abnormalities in the urine- such as hematuria and checking the urine albumin levels.


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