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Iron deficiency anemia
Anemia of chronic disease
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Anemia of chronic disease
Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Acute intermittent porphyria
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Vitamin K deficiency
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Von Willebrand disease
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Antithrombin III deficiency
Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Polycythemia vera (NORD)
Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review
Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review
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|Complete blood count|
I'm Not Average - Jamie is Living with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Despite the Odds
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), Hairy Cell Leukemia & Adult T-cell Leukemia
age ranges p. 730
basophilia caused by p. 416
busulfan for p. 448
chromosomal translocations and p. 442
imatinib for p. 449
oncogenes and p. 222
Philadelphia chromosome p. 730
Samantha McBundy, MFA, CMI
Tanner Marshall, MSVincent Waldman, PhD
With chronic leukemia, “leuk” refers to white blood cells, and “emia” refers to the blood; so in chronic leukemia there are lots of partially developed white blood cells in the blood over a long period of time.
These partially developed white blood cells interfere with the development and function of healthy white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cells.
Now, every blood cell starts its life in the bone marrow as a hematopoietic stem cell.
Hematopoietic stem cells are multipotent -- meaning that they can give rise to both myeloid or lymphoid blood cells.
If a hematopoietic stem cell develops into a myeloid cell, it’ll mature into an erythrocyte -- or a red blood cell, a thrombocyte -- or a platelet, or a leukocyte -- or a white blood cell, like a monocyte or granulocyte.
Granulocytes are cells with tiny granules inside of them -- they include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
If a hematopoietic stem cell develops into a lymphoid cell, on the other hand, it’ll mature into some other kind of leukocyte: a T cell, a B cell, or a natural killer cell, which are referred to as lymphocytes.
Once the various blood cells form, they leave the bone marrow, and travel around the blood, or settle down in tissues and organs like the lymph nodes and spleen.
Chromosomal abnormality in hematopoietic stem cells that are destined to become leukocytes is the most common cause of chronic leukemia.
Some examples of abnormalities include a chromosomal deletion, where part of a chromosome is missing, a trisomy, where there’s one extra chromosome, and a translocation, where two chromosomes break and swap parts with one another.
Now there are two types of chronic leukemia.
The first is chronic myeloid leukemia, CML, which is caused by a particular chromosomal translocation that affects granulocytes.
The second is chronic lymphocytic leukemia, CLL, which is caused by a variety of chromosomal mutations that affect lymphocytes, in particular B cells.
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