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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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With chronic pyelonephritis, pyelo- means pelvis, and -neph- refers to the kidney, so in this case it’s the renal pelvis, which is the funnel-like structure of the kidney that drains urine into the ureter, and -itis means inflammation. This inflammation is usually caused by bacterial infection of the kidney, which is called acute pyelonephritis.
When somebody has recurrent episodes of acute pyelonephritis, the kidney becomes visibly scarred, at which point it’s referred to as chronic pyelonephritis.
Now a urinary tract infection, or UTI, is any infection of the urinary tract, which includes the upper portion of the tract—the kidneys and the ureters, and the lower portion of the tract—the bladder and urethra.
So acute and chronic pyelonephritis are types of upper urinary tract infection.
Now, an episode of acute pyelonephritis often clears up without much complication. Certain people, though, are predisposed to having recurring bouts of acute pyelonephritis, which eventually leads to chronic pyelonephritis and permanent scarring of the renal tissue.
The most common risk factor for recurrent acute pyelonephritis and therefore chronic pyelonephritis, is vesicoureteral reflux, or VUR, which is where urine is allowed to move backward up the urinary tract, which can happen if the vesicoureteral orifice fails.
The vesicoureteral orifice is the one-way valve that allows urine to flow from each ureter into the bladder, but not in the reverse direction.
VUR can be the result of a primary congenital defect or it can be caused by bladder outlet obstruction, which increases pressure in the bladder and distorts the valve.
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