Cleft lip and palate



Cleft lip and palate

Gastrointestinal system

Gastrointestinal system


Cleft lip and palate


0 / 5 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 1 complete

High Yield Notes

8 pages


Cleft lip and palate

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A 10-day-old boy is brought to the emergency department for evaluation of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The parents note recurrent upper and lower extremity muscle spasms. He has had no fever, cough, or runny nose. The patient was born full term via an uncomplicated pregnancy and normal vaginal delivery. Family history is unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrates a neonate with rhythmic jerking movements of the upper and lower of extremities bilaterally. The anterior fontanelle is open, pupils are reactive to light, and fundi are normal. Facial examination reveals a small lower jaw, low set ears, and a submucosal cleft palate. Lungs are clear to auscultation bilaterally. Cardiac auscultation reveals a harsh holosystolic murmur at the left lower sternal border. Chest x-ray demonstrates decreased soft tissue attenuation in the right anterior mediastinum. Which of the following immunologic derrangements is most likely to be observed in this patient?

External References

First Aid








Cleft lip p. 645

Cleft palate p. 644

20q10 deletion syndromes p. 63

Patau syndrome p. 61

Pierre Robin sequence p. 644

teratogens for p. 638


Cleft lip and palate are congenital defects, characterized by the failure of the tissues that form the upper lip and roof of the mouth to join together properly. A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip, sometimes extending into the nasal cavity. On the other hand, cleft palate is said when it is the palate that contains an opening into the nose. Risk factors for cleft lip and palate include diabetes, certain medications during pregnancy, and smoking.


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