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relative risk and p. 260
A group of people who share a common characteristic is called a cohort.
For example, people born in the year 1981 make up a birth cohort, and people who work in construction make up an occupational cohort.
Now, cohort studies or longitudinal studies are a type of study design that follows a cohort of people over time to figure out if there’s an association between an exposure and an outcome.
Typically, cohort studies look at individuals in a cohort who have a certain exposure, as well as individuals in a cohort who have not had that exposure, to compare their rates of a certain outcome in the future.
We can then compare the groups by dividing the probability of lung cancer for people who smoked - 0.00082 - by the probability of lung cancer for people who didn’t smoke - 0.00003 - and determine that people that smoked had 27 times the risk of developing lung cancer during that ten period.
Now, there are two main types of cohort studies.
The first type is called prospective cohort or concurrent cohort, because individuals are followed forward in time.
Then the two groups are followed for ten years, until 2028, and the number of people who develop lung cancer is compared between the two groups.
A cohort study is a study that helps to determine a relationship between an exposure and a future outcome. In cohort studies, a group of people with a specific characteristic, such as exposure to a particular substance, are followed over time to see if they develop a specific disease or health outcome.
Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective. In prospective cohort studies, also known as concurrent cohort studies, individuals are followed forward in time, and the number of people who develop a particular outcome gets compared between the two groups. Next, we have retrospective cohort studies, also called historical or non-concurrent cohort studies. In retrospective cohort studies, two groups of individuals are selected in the past and followed up until the present day. Comparing two groups determines the number of individuals in each group who develop a particular outcome.
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