Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)


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Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

Osteoporosis medications


Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 8 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 55-year-old man comes to the office because of persistent fevers, fatigue, loss of appetite, and transient chest pain for the past 2 months. He has also unintentionally lost 7 kg (15 lb) over the same time period. His temperature is 38.8°C (102°F), pulse is 87/min, respirations are 18/min, and blood pressure is 110/78 mm Hg. Physical examination is non-contributory. Serial blood cultures grow Streptococcus gallolyticus. Echocardiogram reveals vegetations on the mitral valve. Once the patient is stabilized and treated for his bacteremia, which of the following additional diagnostic tests should be performed? 


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Kara Lukasiewicz, PhD, MScBMC

Anca-Elena Stefan, MD

Sam Gillespie, BSc

Evan Debevec-McKenney

Colorectal cancer or CRC is a malignancy that arises in the large intestines, which includes both the colon and rectum. It is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, and a major cause of death and disease around the world. Most colorectal tumors develop due to sporadic mutations, but some are caused by inherited conditions like familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome.

Individuals at high-risk for CRC include those with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis, hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, and those with a family history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps. Individuals at medium-risk for CRC include the elderly, and those that smoke, drink alcohol, eat red meat, and are obese. Finally, well established protective factors include a high-fiber diet full of fruits and vegetables.

Sometimes, especially early on, colorectal cancer is asymptomatic and it’s discovered by screening using either stool based tests or direct visualization. One stool based test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or gFOBT which detects blood in the stool. Another test is fecal immunochemical test or FIT. This time instead of guaiac, there’s an antibody that attaches to any hemoglobin that’s present in the stool. Finally there’s the FIT-DNA test-which combines FIT with a test that detects genes associated with colorectal cancer in the stool, such as mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene or APC gene. One direct visualization test is a colonoscopy, which is when a camera is inserted retrograde into the colon and rectum using a flexible tube and biopsies are taken. Another one is a flexible sigmoidoscopy, which uses a flexible tube to visualize the rectum and sigmoid colon. Finally, there’s CT colonography or a virtual colonoscopy- which is where CT scans are digitally assembled to produce 3-dimensional views of the colon.


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