00:00 / 00:00
0 / 7 complete
compartment syndrome with p. 462
Fascia surrounds the muscles, keeping them tightly together while they contract to move the limb, and it also help attach these muscles to the bones.
Now if we look at a cross section of the lower leg, we can see that the fascia sends intermuscular septa that together with the interosseous membrane between the tibia and fibula divide the lower leg into four compartments.
The anterior, lateral, deep posterior and superficial posterior compartments all contain their own muscles, and blood vessels.
For example, the anterior compartment holds the muscles that perform dorsiflexion of the foot and also aid in it’s inversion and eversion; the deep peroneal nerve that innervates them; and its blood supply comes from the anterior tibial artery and veins.
Since the fascia is not elastic it can’t stretch much. Therefore any increase of the cellular and extracellular volume or a decrease of the volume capacity, like with some external compression, will lead to the increase of the pressure inside the compartment.
Compartment syndrome is when increased pressure within a closed space in the body (a compartment) causes decreased blood flow and can result in tissue damage. It usually occurs in the limbs after traumas and fractures, which causes swelling and bleeding within the compartment. Other causes can include severe burns, plaster casts, and surgery.
Symptoms of compartment syndrome include pain, tightness or numbness, loss of pulse in the extremity, and pallor or coolness of the skin. Diagnosis is made with a physical exam and measuring the pressure within the compartment. If not treated in time, it can lead to ischemia, then permanent damage and loss of the limb.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.