00:00 / 00:00
Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
0 / 9 complete
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) TORCH
At the clinic, two mothers came in with their babies. The first baby is an 11 month old girl called Cecile, who is brought by her parents, who are immigrants, for a routine visit. You immediately noticed that she doesn’t react when you call her name, as if she can’t hear you at all. Upon eye examination, you find that Cecile has bilateral clouding of the lens. Then, upon cardiac auscultation, you hear a continuous rumbling murmur. Upon further questioning, Cecile’s mother tells you that, during the first trimester of pregnancy, she developed a rash that mainly involved her head and neck, as well as swollen lymph nodes behind the ears.
After Cecile, comes a 6 month old baby boy named Arthur with his mother, who is concerned because Arthur has developed multiple purple marks on his skin. Upon physical examination, you noticed that Arthur has an unusually large head for his age. Then, on fundoscopy, his eyes show white and yellow scars that look like cotton. You decide to order a CT scan of the brain, which reveals scattered calcifications. Upon further questioning, Arthur’s mother admits to handling her cat’s litter while she was pregnant, despite her doctor’s advice against it.
All right, now both Cecile and Arthur seem to have a congenital TORCH infection. TORCH is an acronym that stands for infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii; Other agents, such as syphilis, parvovirus B19, varicella zoster virus, and listeria; then there’s Rubella; Cytomegalovirus, and finally Herpes simplex virus-2 or HSV-2.
All these infections are lumped together because they can be vertically transmitted, which means that a pregnant individual can transmit the infection to their child either before birth via the placenta, or during and after birth via blood, body fluids, or breast milk.
Now, keep in mind that TORCH infections may share some non-specific signs and symptoms, including delayed growth, and hepatosplenomegaly or enlarged liver and spleen, which can lead to jaundice or yellow skin, and thrombocytopenia or low platelet count. So for your exams, it’s important that you’re able to distinguish the different TORCH infections based on additional characteristics.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.