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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the infection of a fetus with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, during intrauterine life.
CMV is among the most common infections that cause defects during fetal development.
It is often grouped with other bacteria, parasites, and viruses that cause similar illnesses in the newborn, known under the acronym TORCH, which includes Toxoplasma.
Other pathogens - usually syphilis; Rubella; Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus.
CMV belongs to the herpesviridae family of viruses.
Herpesviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses which are surrounded by a lipid envelope.
CMV is usually transmitted through contact with blood and other body fluids like breast milk, saliva, genital secretions, and urine of an infected person; or from transplanted organs.
Congenital CMV infection occurs when a pregnant woman is infected by CMV for the first time during the pregnancy, or there's reactivation of an old infection, or reinfection with a new strain of CMV.
The virus in the mother travels through the placenta to the growing fetus.
The exact mechanism by which CMV causes infection and defects in the developing fetus is still unknown, but it’s thought to be because of two things.
First, CMV can be cytopathic, or cell-damaging, as it replicates within the cells.
It breaks down the cytoskeletons which maintain the cell structure which results in enlarged cells with intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, giving it the classic “owl's eye” appearance.
It is also possible CMV slows down the process of mitosis, or cell division.
Since mitosis helps drive the development of the fetus, tissue with infected cells might not grow properly.
Second, CMV invades the endothelium of blood vessels, resulting in vasculitis, or inflammation of blood vessels.
Vasculitis can affect placental as well as fetal blood vessels, causing narrowing of the vessel wall. And, as a result, not enough blood flows to developing organs, causing abnormalities.
Congenital CMV also increases the risk of intrauterine growth restriction, meaning the fetus does not grow well, or oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios, which is increased or decreased amniotic fluid.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a viral infection that can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus, usually resulting in birth defects. Babies affected by congenital CMV are usually born with petechiae, hepatosplenomegaly, sensorineural hearing loss, eye abnormalities, developmental delays, microcephaly, motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy, and frequent seizures.
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