Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)


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Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)


Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)


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Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Jahnavi Narayanan, MBBS

Alex Aranda

Evan Debevec-McKenney

Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the infection of a fetus with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, during intrauterine life.

CMV is among the most common infections that cause defects during fetal development.

It is often grouped with other bacteria, parasites, and viruses that cause similar illnesses in the newborn, known under the acronym TORCH, which includes Toxoplasma.

Other pathogens - usually syphilisRubellaCytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus.

CMV belongs to the herpesviridae family of viruses.

Herpesviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses which are surrounded by a lipid envelope.

CMV is usually transmitted through contact with blood and other body fluids like breast milk, saliva, genital secretions, and urine of an infected person; or from transplanted organs.

Congenital CMV infection occurs when a pregnant woman is infected by CMV for the first time during the pregnancy, or there's reactivation of an old infection, or reinfection with a new strain of CMV.

The virus in the mother travels through the placenta to the growing fetus.

The exact mechanism by which CMV causes infection and defects in the developing fetus is still unknown, but it’s thought to be because of two things.

First, CMV can be cytopathic, or cell-damaging, as it replicates within the cells.

It breaks down the cytoskeletons which maintain the cell structure which results in enlarged cells with intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, giving it the classic “owl's eye” appearance.

It is also possible CMV slows down the process of mitosis, or cell division.

Since mitosis helps drive the development of the fetus, tissue with infected cells might not grow properly.

Second, CMV invades the endothelium of blood vessels, resulting in vasculitis, or inflammation of blood vessels.

Vasculitis can affect placental as well as fetal blood vessels, causing narrowing of the vessel wall. And, as a result, not enough blood flows to developing organs, causing abnormalities.

Congenital CMV also increases the risk of intrauterine growth restriction, meaning the fetus does not grow well, or oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios, which is increased or decreased amniotic fluid.


Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a viral infection that can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus, usually resulting in birth defects. Babies affected by congenital CMV are usually born with petechiae, hepatosplenomegaly, sensorineural hearing loss, eye abnormalities, developmental delays, microcephaly, motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy, and frequent seizures.


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