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Apnea of prematurity
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Upper respiratory tract infection
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
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A congenital pulmonary airway malformation, abbreviated CPAM, is a lung malformation that usually affects a single lobe of one of the lungs, and forms during fetal development.
The old name for CPAMs was congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, because they have both “cysts” and “glands” in them, but are terribly malformed and disorganized.
CPAM cysts are continuous with the airways, so they’re filled with fluid in utero, and become filled with air after birth.
The cause of CPAMs isn’t known.
It isn’t even known whether they’re a developmental failure or if they’re a type of hamartoma, which is a benign overgrowth of tissue.
Sometimes, the growing CPAM can prevent normal healthy lung tissue from developing - causing pulmonary hypoplasia - which is underdevelopment of the lungs.
Also, a CPAM can push on the heart or large veins, causing blood to back up throughout the fetus’s veins.
When that happens, fluid can start to leak into the fetal tissues, a condition called fetal hydrops.
Whether or not any of this happens largely depends on the size and location of the CPAM.
CPAMs can arise from different spots along the tracheobronchial tree, and that’s how they’re sub-typed.
The five subtypes are named 0 through 4, with type 0 arising from the most proximal airways – the trachea and proximal bronchioles, and type 4 developing all the way down in the alveolus.
Type 0 CPAMs develop at the trachea or proximal bronchus with small cysts, but are pretty rare.
Type 1 CPAMs, which develop in the distal bronchi and proximal bronchioles, are the most common, and have one or more large cysts, with tissue like cartilage in between the cysts.
Type 2’s come from the terminal bronchioles and have smaller cysts.
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