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Cardiovascular system anatomy and physiology
Lymphatic system anatomy and physiology
Abnormal heart sounds
Normal heart sounds
Changes in pressure-volume loops
Cardiac and vascular function curves
Altering cardiac and vascular function curves
Law of Laplace
Measuring cardiac output (Fick principle)
Stroke volume, ejection fraction, and cardiac output
Physiological changes during exercise
Cardiovascular changes during hemorrhage
Cardiovascular changes during postural change
Cardiac conduction velocity
Electrical conduction in the heart
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
Control of blood flow circulation
Microcirculation and Starling forces
Blood pressure, blood flow, and resistance
Compliance of blood vessels
Laminar flow and Reynolds number
Pressures in the cardiovascular system
Resistance to blood flow
Action potentials in myocytes
Action potentials in pacemaker cells
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling
Excitability and refractory periods
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anatomy of p. 289
atherosclerosis in p. 305
occlusion of p. 289
atherosclerosis in p. 733
coronary circulation p. 288
coronary circulation p. 289
With coronary circulation, coronary comes from the Latin word “coronarius,” meaning "crown." This is because the coronary blood vessels surrounding the heart resembles a little crown! And circulation refers to “the flow of blood.” So, coronary circulation is the movement of blood throughout the vessels that supply the myocardium also known as the heart muscle.
Now, the heart is a pump, primarily made up of cardiac muscle cells known as cardiomyocytes. And like any other cell, they require a steady supply of oxygen, nutrients, and a way to eliminate wastes. And although the heart is continually pumping blood throughout its chambers, the myocardium is too thick for the diffusion of blood to happen effectively. So, instead, the coronary circulation provides an efficient way for the exchange of substances to occur.
Okay, the coronary circulation system is mainly made up of arteries and veins. To begin, the arterial supply of the heart starts with the branching out of the left and right coronary arteries from the base of the aorta. It’s like a superhighway that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Now, the left coronary artery heads along the left coronary sulcus, a groove on the outer surface of the heart that marks the point of division between the ventricles and the atria. Not too far along the sulcus, the left coronary artery divides into two major branches. The first is the left anterior descending artery or LAD. It travels down the anterior interventricular sulcus, and it supplies the anterior 2/3 of the interventricular septum, the anterolateral papillary muscle, and the anterior surface of the left ventricle. The second branch is the left circumflex artery or LCX. It goes along the coronary sulcus, around the left side of the heart and supplies the left atrium and the posterior walls of the left ventricle.
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