Cyclic vomiting syndrome (NORD)

00:00 / 00:00

Videos

Notes

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (NORD)

Information for patients and families

Osmosis

Using an inhaler: Information for patients and families

Managing diabetes during the holidays: Information for patients and families

The flu vaccine: Information for patients and families

Bike helmet safety: Information for patients and families

The Primary School

Toxic stress: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

ADHD: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

Asthma: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

Childhood nutrition and obesity: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

Childhood oral health: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

Food allergies and EpiPens: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

Glut1 Deficiency Foundation

Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 Deficiency Foundation)

The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)

Narcolepsy (NORD)

Adrenoleukodystrophy (NORD)

Zellweger spectrum disorders (NORD)

Glycogen storage disease type II (NORD)

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (NORD)

Gaucher disease (NORD)

Niemann-Pick disease types A and B (NORD)

Fabry disease (NORD)

Tay-Sachs disease (NORD)

Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 1 (Hurler syndrome) (NORD)

Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 2 (Hunter syndrome) (NORD)

Phenylketonuria (NORD)

Cystinuria (NORD)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (NORD)

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (NORD)

Classical homocystinuria (NORD)

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)

Thyroid eye disease (NORD)

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)

Thyroid eye disease (NORD)

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Bile synthesis disorders (NORD)

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (NORD)

Polycythemia vera (NORD)

Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)

Myelofibrosis (NORD)

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia and cold agglutinin (NORD)

Sickle cell disease (NORD)

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (NORD)

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (NORD)

Cytomegalovirus infection after transplant (NORD)

Congenital athymia (NORD)

Severe chronic neutropenia (NORD)

Mycobacterium avium complex (NORD)

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)

Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)

IgA nephropathy (NORD)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)

Alagille syndrome (NORD)

NGLY1 deficiency (NORD)

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (NORD)

Recurrent pericarditis (NORD)

Gorlin Syndrome Alliance

Gorlin syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome Alliance)

Transcript

Content Reviewers

Antonella Melani, MD

Kelly Johnson, MS

Contributors

Jerry Ferro

Alaina Mueller

Megan Gullotto, MSMI

Cyclic vomiting syndrome, or CVS for short, is a disorder characterized by recurrent or cyclic episodes of severe nausea and vomiting. CVS can occur at any age, but is typically more common and severe in children.

Episodes of nausea and vomiting may last for a few hours to several days. They generally have sudden onset, resolve for a period of time, and are similar each time.

In some people, especially adults, nausea and vomiting may continue between episodes,but the intensity is far less severe than during episodes.

Episodes may occur a few times a year or as frequently as several times a month. Episodes may return like clockwork, and monthly episodes are common. They can occur at times of stress, or be apparently random.

During an episode, vomit can be bilious, appearing green or yellow. Children may experience bouts of projectile vomiting as frequently as four or more times per hour, which can potentially lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, involving sodium and potassium.

Episodes can also be associated with severe abdominal pain, retching, and diarrhea, as well as decreased appetite and weight loss.

Some individuals may also experience migraine-like symptoms, like headaches and sensitivity to light and sound, as well as fever, dizziness, a lack of energy, and pallor.

In severe cases, an individual can become incapacitated and unable to walk or talk until the episode resolves. The exact cause of CVS is still unknown, but it seems to have many contributing factors.

The nervous system is thought to play a role. Nerves deliver messages throughout the body, including between the brain and gut, to coordinate functions.

Most individuals with CVS have migraines or a family history of migraines. In fact, CVS is sometimes called “abdominal migraine”.

Gastrointestinal motility may also have a role. The gastrointestinal tract has a layer of smooth muscles, which normally help push food, liquid, and gas from the esophagus down to the rectum.

Summary

Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent, sudden episodes of severe nausea and vomiting. These episodes can last for hours, days, or weeks and are not associated with other illnesses or injuries. Between episodes, people with CVS feel entirely normal.

The cause of CVS is unknown, but it may be related to problems with the autonomic nervous system or changes in the levels of certain chemicals in the blood. Some people with CVS have a family history of the condition. CVS usually starts in childhood, mainly affecting children between the age of 3 to 7 years. It often resolves by adolescents, but it may persist in some individuals until adulthood.

Elsevier

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.

RELX