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Apnea of prematurity
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Upper respiratory tract infection
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
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Current TV presents 'Dying Young'
Living with Cystic Fibrosis - Lauren's Story
Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Treatment
Cystic Fibrosis Mechanisms
Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms and Complications
cystic fibrosis p. 58
in cystic fibrosis p. 58
cystic fibrosis p. 176
Aspergillus fumigatus p. , 150
bronchiectasis p. 696
chromosome association p. 62
common organisms p. 176
meconium ileus in p. 393
N -acetylcysteine p. 707
pancreatic insufficiency p. 388
vitamin deficiencies and p. 63
for cystic fibrosis p. 58
cystic fibrosis p. 58, 176
You’re probably aware that cystic fibrosis, or CF, is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, but that’s only part of the story.
In fact, the name “cystic fibrosis,” refers to the disease’s effects on the pancreas, where it can lead to cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs wrapped in a membrane and fibrosis—excess deposition of connective tissue that can replace or infiltrate normal tissue in an organ.
CF is an autosomal recessive disorder involving the CFTR gene, which stands for “cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator,” and this gene codes for the CFTR protein.
CF develops when there’s a mutation in the CFTR gene, but because it’s autosomal recessive, you need to inherit two mutated CFTR genes, one from mom and one from dad.
Now if mom and dad both have one copy of the mutated gene and one normal gene, they’re considered carriers and don’t have the disease.
Inheriting CF is more common in people of European descent.
The CFTR protein is a channel protein that pumps chloride ions into various secretions, those chloride ions help draw water into the secretions, which ends up thinning them out.
The most common mutation is the “∆F508” mutation.
Delta means a deletion, and the F (which can also be written as “Phe”) is short for phenylalanine, and the 508 is the five hundred and 8th amino acid in the CFTR protein.
So, the ∆F508 mutation is where the 508th amino acid out of 1480, phenylalanine, is deleted and missing.
This CFTR protein with the ∆F508 mutation gets misfolded and can’t migrate from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, meaning there’s a lack of CFTR protein on the epithelial surface, and this means that it can’t pump chloride ions out, which means water doesn’t get drawn in, and the secretions are left overly thick.
In a newborn, thick secretions can affect the baby’s meconium, or first stool, or, which can get so thick and sticky that it might get stuck in the baby’s intestines and not come out, and this is called a meconium ileus and is a surgical emergency.
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