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Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Major depressive disorder
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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
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Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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Carer Experiences with Delirium - Sato
delirium with p. 577
barbiturate withdrawal p. 590
diabetic ketoacidosis p. 355
PCP p. 591
thyroid storm p. 346
drug-related delirium in p. 577
delirium p. 577
delirium caused by p. 577
delirium and p. 577
Delirium is a common and very serious neuropsychiatric syndrome.
Typically it affects older patients with multiple medical problems, in fact up to half of all elderly patients in the hospital will have an episode of delirium at some point, but being said it can affect anyone - even children, even though that’s much less common.
So, what is delirium exactly? Well let’s look at a quick example. Let’s say there is an elderly man with diabetes and heart disease, who comes into the hospital with pneumonia.
He might be slowly recovering, even about to go home, and then one evening things change all of the sudden. He might get really hyperactive, and by that I mean that he may get agitated or aggressive with the staff, mumble or say things incoherently, and have disorganized thoughts or even delusions, perhaps talking about things that haven’t happened or happened years ago. He might even hear or see things like hallucinations, and not know where he is or what he’s doing there.
We would call this an episode of delirium, and it can be really scary for him or someone who is taking care of him, especially the first time it happens because it can come out of the blue.
These are the symptoms of what we call hyperactive delirium.
But there’s also hypoactive delirium which is like the flip side of the coin.
As an example, you might have a woman with a history of chronic constipation who has recently come out of back surgery.
If she has hypoactive delirium she might feel suddenly sluggish and drowsy, less reactive and sullen, and might look withdrawn, perhaps because she’s scared of having hallucinations.
These symptoms of both hyperactive and hypoactive delirium can start pretty suddenly and can happen off and on over the course of a few hours to a few days, with some patients having what they call mix state delirium where they are sometimes having hyperactive symptoms and sometimes having hypoactive symptoms.
As you might guess, delirium symptoms can be really tiresome for a patient and can make them sleepy during the day, and keep them up at night - all of which causes massive disruption to a person’s life and to the lives of their friends and family.
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