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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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Carer Experiences with Delirium - Sato
delirium with p. 577
barbiturate withdrawal p. 590
diabetic ketoacidosis p. 355
PCP p. 591
thyroid storm p. 346
drug-related delirium in p. 577
delirium p. 577
delirium caused by p. 577
delirium and p. 577
Delirium is a common and very serious neuropsychiatric syndrome.
Typically it affects older patients with multiple medical problems, in fact up to half of all elderly patients in the hospital will have an episode of delirium at some point, but being said it can affect anyone - even children, even though that’s much less common.
So, what is delirium exactly? Well let’s look at a quick example. Let’s say there is an elderly man with diabetes and heart disease, who comes into the hospital with pneumonia.
He might be slowly recovering, even about to go home, and then one evening things change all of the sudden. He might get really hyperactive, and by that I mean that he may get agitated or aggressive with the staff, mumble or say things incoherently, and have disorganized thoughts or even delusions, perhaps talking about things that haven’t happened or happened years ago. He might even hear or see things like hallucinations, and not know where he is or what he’s doing there.
We would call this an episode of delirium, and it can be really scary for him or someone who is taking care of him, especially the first time it happens because it can come out of the blue.
These are the symptoms of what we call hyperactive delirium.
But there’s also hypoactive delirium which is like the flip side of the coin.
As an example, you might have a woman with a history of chronic constipation who has recently come out of back surgery.
If she has hypoactive delirium she might feel suddenly sluggish and drowsy, less reactive and sullen, and might look withdrawn, perhaps because she’s scared of having hallucinations.
These symptoms of both hyperactive and hypoactive delirium can start pretty suddenly and can happen off and on over the course of a few hours to a few days, with some patients having what they call mix state delirium where they are sometimes having hyperactive symptoms and sometimes having hypoactive symptoms.
As you might guess, delirium symptoms can be really tiresome for a patient and can make them sleepy during the day, and keep them up at night - all of which causes massive disruption to a person’s life and to the lives of their friends and family.
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