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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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dental caries p. 132
Dental caries disease, also called tooth decay, refers to demineralization or weakening of the teeth, and the end result of caries disease is a caries lesion.
An advanced caries lesion can progress to a point where the tooth surface forms a cavitation or a hole, which is the physical evidence of tooth breakdown.
Let's start by building a model of a tooth and its surrounding structures.
In the mouth, the bone beneath the bottom row of teeth is the mandible, and the bone above the top row of teeth is the maxilla.
Both bones have an alveolus, or socket, for each tooth.
The socket is lined on the inside by a periodontal ligament.
Protecting the alveolus on the outside, is a layer of soft, supportive tissue called the gingiva, or gums, that sits on top of the bone and covers the root surface from the bone to the cementoenamel junction - where the cementum and enamel come together.
The tooth itself can be roughly divided into a few parts.
The first part is the root, and it sits within the alveolus.
The root is covered by cementum, which is a bonelike substance that the periodontal ligament’s fibers attach to.
Next, there’s the neck, which is the transition between the root portion covered by bone and the crown.
The crown is the visible part of the tooth that protrudes from the gingiva, and it’s covered in enamel, which has such a high mineral content that it’s the hardest substance in the human body.
When the teeth are developing, enamel is made before the tooth erupts into the mouth by a group of cells called the ameloblasts that die once the tooth erupts - meaning that the teeth lose the ability to make more enamel forever.
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