A 58-year-old woman presents to her ophthalmologist for evaluation of decreased visual acuity. She states her vision in both eyes has been worsening over the past six months. The patient has a history of poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus
. Vitals are within normal limits. Fundoscopic examination reveals bilateral retinal hemorrhages, hard exudates
, and angiogenesis circumferential to the retina
in both eyes. Which of the following growth factors is responsible for these fundoscopic features?