USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE
A 65-year-old woman comes to the clinic for a routine eye examination. Medical history includes type 2 diabetes diagnosed 15 years ago, as well as hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Medications include insulin, lisinopril, and atorvastatin. Up until 6 months ago, the diabetes had been controlled on metformin and liraglutide, but since then, the patient’s physician switched to monotherapy with insulin, due to increasing capillary blood glucose measurements and hemoglobin A1c. The patient’s temperature is 36.7°C (98.0°F), pulse is 70/min, respirations are 18/min, and blood pressure is 130/85 mmHg. Visual acuity testing shows a score of 20/60 in both eyes. Which of the following is most likely to be found on an ophthalmoscopic examination?
Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus that occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the retina, the sensitive tissue at the back of the eye responsible for converting visual signals into impulses readable by the brain. Diabetic retinopathy can lead to bleeding in the eye, blurred vision, and eventually, vision loss.