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Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands
Renal system anatomy and physiology
Renal failure: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region
Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract
Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Heart
Anatomy clinical correlates: Mediastinum
Anatomy clinical correlates: Pleura and lungs
Anatomy clinical correlates: Thoracic wall
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review
Skin cancer: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology
Enteric nervous system
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Laxatives and cathartics
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Anatomy clinical correlates: Facial (CN VII) and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior blood supply to the brain
Anatomy clinical correlates: Temporal regions, oral cavity and nose
Headaches: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, fascia and muscles of the neck
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back
Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder
Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot
Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh
Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee
Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle
Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves
Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Vertebral canal
Back pain: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Eye
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anatomy clinical correlates: Ear
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
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Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Assessment
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Interventions
At the gastroenterology clinic, there is a 62- year- old male from Germany, named Karl, who came in for his regular colonoscopy.
He is totally asymptomatic, except for occasional vague abdominal discomfort after meals.
Next, a 65- year- old Native American named James came to the emergency department after two episodes of painlessly passing fresh, red blood in his stool.
Finally, Zendaya, a 78- year- old African- American female, was brought to the hospital from a nursing home by paramedics, due to a severe pain in the left lower abdomen which started this morning.
Her temperature was measured at 101.8°F or 38.8°C at the nursing home.
On further history, they all had diets low in fiber and high in fat and red meat and suffered from chronic constipation.
Zendaya’s nursing home attendant reports that lately her constipation has been even worse than usual; in fact, her last bowel movement was more than three days ago.
Karl, James and Zendaya all have diverticula in the colon.
Diverticula are small outpouchings that form along the walls of a hollow structure, most commonly, the large intestine.
According to their pathogenesis, diverticula can be broadly grouped into traction and pulsion diverticula.
Traction diverticula occur due to the pulling forces of an adjacent inflammatory site, resulting in scarring and outpouching of all layers of the intestinal wall.
These are also known as true diverticula.
Next, there’s pulsion diverticula, which are a result of high pressures created during a strained bowel movement.
The pressure pushes on the mucosa and submucosa until they bubble out through weak spots along the wall, like where a blood vessel penetrates the muscle layer of the intestine.
These are also known as false or pseudodiverticula since they don’t involve all layers of the intestinal wall.
For your exams, it’s important to know that, most of the time, diverticula in the large intestine, and particularly, the left and sigmoid colon, are pulsion or false diverticula.
Having diverticula in the colon is called diverticulosis, and it’s more common in individuals older than 60 years old, consuming a diet low in fiber and high in fatty foods, like red meat.
Fiber helps stool move more easily through the colon, so diets low in fiber can lead to constipation which means more force is required to move bulky, hard stool.
Most of the time, people won’t even know they have diverticulosis because they don’t have any symptoms besides constipation and mild or vague abdominal discomfort after meals.
Diagnosis is typically made incidentally during a colonoscopy or CT scan that might be done for another reason entirely.
Okay, so even though diverticulosis doesn’t cause major distress in the person, they can still cause serious complications.
One complication is bleeding due to weakening and breaking of blood vessels near a diverticula. It’s important to know that diverticulosis is the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
This will typically appear in your exam as an elderly patient with a history of chronic constipation and painless hematochezia, which means bright red or maroon blood passing from the rectum.
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