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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Assessment
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Interventions
At the gastroenterology clinic, there is a 62- year- old male from Germany, named Karl, who came in for his regular colonoscopy.
He is totally asymptomatic, except for occasional vague abdominal discomfort after meals.
Next, a 65- year- old Native American named James came to the emergency department after two episodes of painlessly passing fresh, red blood in his stool.
Finally, Zendaya, a 78- year- old African- American female, was brought to the hospital from a nursing home by paramedics, due to a severe pain in the left lower abdomen which started this morning.
Her temperature was measured at 101.8°F or 38.8°C at the nursing home.
On further history, they all had diets low in fiber and high in fat and red meat and suffered from chronic constipation.
Zendaya’s nursing home attendant reports that lately her constipation has been even worse than usual; in fact, her last bowel movement was more than three days ago.
Karl, James and Zendaya all have diverticula in the colon.
Diverticula are small outpouchings that form along the walls of a hollow structure, most commonly, the large intestine.
According to their pathogenesis, diverticula can be broadly grouped into traction and pulsion diverticula.
Traction diverticula occur due to the pulling forces of an adjacent inflammatory site, resulting in scarring and outpouching of all layers of the intestinal wall.
These are also known as true diverticula.
Next, there’s pulsion diverticula, which are a result of high pressures created during a strained bowel movement.
The pressure pushes on the mucosa and submucosa until they bubble out through weak spots along the wall, like where a blood vessel penetrates the muscle layer of the intestine.
These are also known as false or pseudodiverticula since they don’t involve all layers of the intestinal wall.
For your exams, it’s important to know that, most of the time, diverticula in the large intestine, and particularly, the left and sigmoid colon, are pulsion or false diverticula.
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