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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
Diverticulosis of the colon without diverticulitis.
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Assessment
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Interventions
Large Bowel & Appendiceal Disorders
Diverticula, or a single diverticulum, is this pouch that forms along the walls of a hollow structure in the body, kind of like a cave.
Usually we talk about these caves or pouches in the context of the large intestine, so it’d be a colonic diverticula, but it can also happen in the small intestine as well as other hollow structures in the body.
The walls of the large intestine are made up of several layers, starting with the inner layer, the mucosa, then the submucosa, then the muscle layer, and finally serosa.
Sometimes these little out-pouches include all the layers, from mucosa to serosa, and these are true diverticula, and sometimes only the mucosa and submucosa poke through the muscle layer, and these would be called pseudo or false diverticula, where the muscle layer isn’t included and the mucosa and submucosa are covered only by serosa.
Most of the time, diverticula in the large intestine are false diverticula.
It’s thought that the formation of colonic diverticula is a result of high pressures that literally push the walls such that they bubble out and form these pouches.
Now remember that the large intestine has this smooth muscle layer, right? And it’s able to contract using that muscle layer, just like any other muscle we contract, except that we can’t consciously control these because it’s smooth muscle rather than skeletal muscle.
This smooth muscle contraction accomplishes a couple things, like mixing ingested food and moving digested food toward the end of the line.
Whenever it contracts, though, higher pressures are generated inside the lumen, since it’s sort of like being squeezed and compressing the air inside, and normally you’d imagine that the higher pressure would be equally felt throughout the lumen, right?
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