Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review

00:00 / 00:00



Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review

Psychological disorders

Mood disorders

Major depressive disorder


Bipolar disorder

Seasonal affective disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Anxiety disorders

Generalized anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder

Panic disorder



Obsessive-compulsive disorders

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Body focused repetitive disorders

Body dysmorphic disorder

Stress-related disorders and abuse

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Physical and sexual abuse

Psychotic disorders

Schizoaffective disorder

Schizophreniform disorder

Delusional disorder


Cognitive and dissociative disorders



Dissociative disorders

Eating disorders

Anorexia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa

Personality disorders

Cluster A personality disorders

Cluster B personality disorders

Cluster C personality disorders

Somatoform and factitious disorders

Somatic symptom disorder

Factitious disorder

Substance use disorders and drugs of abuse

Tobacco dependence

Opioid dependence

Cannabis dependence

Cocaine dependence

Alcohol use disorder

Sleep disorders


Nocturnal enuresis


Night terrors

Narcolepsy (NORD)

Sexual dysfunction disorders

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder

Pediatric disorders

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

Learning disability

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Tourette syndrome

Autism spectrum disorder

Rett syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome



Psychiatric emergencies


Serotonin syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Psychological disorders review

Mood disorders: Pathology review

Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review

Personality disorders: Pathology review

Eating disorders: Pathology review

Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review

Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review

Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review

Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review

Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review

Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review

Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review

Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review


Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 7 complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 1-day old boy is evaluated in the neonatal ICU for preterm birth and low birth weight. The patient was born via uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery to a 35-year-old woman at 34 weeks gestation. The neonate has passed urine and is breastfeeding. He has not passed stool. The mother had a normal pregnancy with regular antenatal care. During her pregnancy, she had two upper respiratory tract infections and a urinary tract infection that was treated. She did not use illicit drugs or consume alcohol during her pregnancy. She did consume caffeinated energy drinks and smoked a pack of cigarettes on the weekends throughout her pregnancy. Temperature is 37.2°C (99°F), blood pressure is 70/30 mmHg, pulse is 120/min, and respiratory rate is 55/min. His weight, length and head circumference are at the 40th percentile for gestational age. Birth weight was 1500g. Abdomen is soft and nontender. Normal heart sounds are heard on cardiovascular auscultation. Which of the following intrauterine processes is most likely responsible for this patient’s clinical findings?

Memory Anchors and Partner Content


Content Reviewers

Antonia Syrnioti, MD

Antonella Melani, MD


Sam Gillespie, BSc

Tina Collins

Kaia Chessen, MScBMC

In the middle of the night, a 25 year old female, named Sylvie, comes to the emergency department complaining of retrosternal chest pain that began a couple of hours ago. Earlier that night, she was at a party, where she and her friends consumed alcohol.

Upon further questioning, Sylvie reveals that she also consumed an illicit drug. She is otherwise healthy, has no history of cardiac disease, and does not take any medications.

On physical examination, Sylvie is sweating profusely. In addition, her pupils are dilated, and the nasal septum is atrophic.

Vital signs reveal a temperature of 100 degrees Fahrenheit or 37.7 degrees Celsius, a heart rate of 110 beats per minute, and a blood pressure of 160 over 90 millimeters of mercury.

Some days later, you meet a 36 year old male, named Hunter, who comes in due to recurrent headaches associated with trouble concentrating and irritability.

Hunter adds that he feels like he can’t stop eating, and as a consequence, he’s gained about 3 kilograms, or about 7 pounds, over the last two weeks.

When you ask about his habits, Hunter admits to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes daily for the last 10 years, but stopped smoking about two weeks ago.

Based on the initial presentation, both Sylvie and Hunter seem to have a form of stimulant intoxication or withdrawal.

Stimulants are a group of substances that, when consumed, typically lead to increased activity in the body and brain.

Stimulants include legal substances like caffeine, nicotine, and some amphetamines that can be prescribed for medical treatment; as well as illegal substances, such as cocaine and other amphetamines like MDMA.


  1. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  2. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  4. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  5. "Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry" Elsevier (2021)
  6. "Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking" LWW (2017)
  7. "Atlas of Emergency Medicine" NA (2015)
  8. "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (2013)
  9. "A developmental etiological model for drug abuse in men" Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2017)

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.