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Cardiovascular system anatomy and physiology
Lymphatic system anatomy and physiology
Blood pressure, blood flow, and resistance
Pressures in the cardiovascular system
Laminar flow and Reynolds number
Resistance to blood flow
Compliance of blood vessels
Control of blood flow circulation
Microcirculation and Starling forces
Measuring cardiac output (Fick principle)
Stroke volume, ejection fraction, and cardiac output
Law of Laplace
Cardiac and vascular function curves
Altering cardiac and vascular function curves
Changes in pressure-volume loops
Physiological changes during exercise
Cardiovascular changes during hemorrhage
Cardiovascular changes during postural change
Normal heart sounds
Abnormal heart sounds
Action potentials in myocytes
Action potentials in pacemaker cells
Excitability and refractory periods
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling
Electrical conduction in the heart
Cardiac conduction velocity
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
Electrical conduction in the heart
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Tanner Marshall, MS
So, electrical conduction in the heart refers to the electrical signals that go from cell to cell in the heart. This happens in the form of action potentials, which get sent out by the pacemaker cells in the heart.
The pacemaker cells, also called conducting cells, are a relatively tiny group -- only about 1% of the heart cells -- but they’re a pretty influential minority.
They’re special ability is that they are autorhythmic, which means that they are able to continually generate new action potentials that go out to the rest of the heart -- the other 99%.
This is different from how it works in skeletal muscle cells, which get their action potential signals directly from neurons.
The cells that receive the cardiac action potential from the pacemaker cells are called myocytes - they make up the myocardium, which is the muscular middle layer of the heart.
Myocytes are also called contractile cells because they contract and that’s how the heart pumps blood.
Action potentials are initiated by depolarization, which is the opposite of polarization. In this case polarization is when there are more positive ions outside the cell than inside.
This difference in charge is called the membrane potential and is negative since there are more positive ions outside the cell.
So, depolarization is when the membrane potential gets smaller making a cell slightly more positive than it normally would be - imagine a negative, gloomy cell enjoying a moment of joy.
If one cell after another depolarizes, then there’s a depolarization wave which is just like a crowd of people doing the wave at a football stadium.
So, there’s a group of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node or SA node, which is a small sinus or cavity tucked up into the right atrium. During each heartbeat, one pacemaker cell out of the group will automatically depolarize first.
The heart is a muscular organ that contracts and relaxes to pump blood throughout the body. Electrical signals originate in the sinoatrial (SA) node in the right atrium. The depolarization wave from the SA node travels to the atrioventricular (AV) node and the left atria. From the AV node, the depolarization wave travels through the bundle of His and the Purkinje fibres, from where it spreads to the rest of the heart's muscle. This impulse triggers the heart muscles to contract and pump blood.
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