Endometrial carcinoma, or endometrial cancer, is when malignant or cancer cells arise in the glands of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus.
The uterus is a hollow organ that sits behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum.
The top of the uterus above the openings of the fallopian tubes is called the fundus, and the region below the openings is called the uterine body.
The uterus tapers down into the uterine isthmus and finally the cervix, which protrudes into the vagina.
Zooming into the cervix, there are two openings, a superior opening up top, and an inferior opening down below, both of which have mucus plugs to keep the uterus closed off except during menstruation and right before ovulation.
The uterus is anchored to the sacrum by utero-sacral ligaments, to the anterior body wall by round ligaments, and it’s supported laterally by cardinal ligaments as well as the mesometrium, which is part of the broad ligament.