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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Amenorrhea: Pathology review
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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endometrial hyperplasia p. 660
follicular cysts p. 666
progesterone and p. 650
With endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial refers to the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus, and hyperplasia means increased growth, so endometrial hyperplasia means excessive growth of the inner lining of the uterus.
The uterus consists of 3 layers, an outer thin layer called the perimetrium or the serosa, a middle smooth muscle layer called the myometrium, and the innermost layer, the endometrium.
The endometrium has two layers, an inner functional layer made up mainly of glands and supporting connective tissue, called stroma, and an outer thin basal layer which regenerates the overlying functional layer after each menstrual cycle.
Now, the growth of the functional layer is regulated by the hormones secreted by the ovaries. Each ovary is made up of a number of ovarian follicles.
Each follicle consists of an oocyte, which is the female germ cell, surrounded by an outer layer made up of theca cells, which secrete androgens, also known as the male hormones, and an inner layer made up of granulosa cells, which secrete estrogen.
Now estrogen stimulates the growth of endometrial glands and stroma.
This effect of estrogen predominates during the first phase of the menstrual cycle.
This is also called the proliferative phase because it’s when the lining of the endometrium grows.
At the end of this phase, ovulation occurs, where one ovarian follicle expels the oocyte into the fallopian tube and it travels to the uterus.
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