Endometrial hyperplasia


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Endometrial hyperplasia

Reproductive system

Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Endometrial hyperplasia


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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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Endometrial hyperplasia

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A 55-year-old woman, gravida 1 para 1, presents to the office with complaints of abnormal vaginal bleeding for the past two days. The patient states that she soaked 4 sanitary pads yesterday. Menarche was at age 14, and her menstrual periods had been irregular for the last few years before menopause, which she underwent at the age of 51. Past medical history is significant for generalized anxiety disorder managed by paroxetine for the last 15 years. Family history is significant for diabetes mellitus in her father and hypertension in her paternal grandmother. Vitals are within normal limits. BMI is 33.5 kg/m2. Pelvic examination shows blood clots in the vagina. The remainder of the examination is unremarkable. Endometrial biopsy is shown below:    

Reproduced from: Wikimedia Commons  

Which of the following risk factors in this patient’s history is the most significant in the development of this patient’s condition?  

External References

First Aid









endometrial hyperplasia p. 665

Endometrial hyperplasia p. 665

follicular cysts p. 670

progesterone and p. 654

Hormone replacement therapy p. 680

endometrial hyperplasia p. 665

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

endometrial hyperplasia p. 665

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Content Reviewers

Yifan Xiao, MD


Kaylee Neff

Salma Ladhani, MD

With endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial refers to the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus, and hyperplasia means increased growth, so endometrial hyperplasia means excessive growth of the inner lining of the uterus.

The uterus consists of 3 layers, an outer thin layer called the perimetrium or the serosa, a middle smooth muscle layer called the myometrium, and the innermost layer, the endometrium.

The endometrium has two layers, an inner functional layer made up mainly of glands and supporting connective tissue, called stroma, and an outer thin basal layer which regenerates the overlying functional layer after each menstrual cycle.

Now, the growth of the functional layer is regulated by the hormones secreted by the ovaries. Each ovary is made up of a number of ovarian follicles.

Each follicle consists of an oocyte, which is the female germ cell, surrounded by an outer layer made up of theca cells, which secrete androgens, also known as the male hormones, and an inner layer made up of granulosa cells, which secrete estrogen.

Now estrogen stimulates the growth of endometrial glands and stroma.

This effect of estrogen predominates during the first phase of the menstrual cycle.

This is also called the proliferative phase because it’s when the lining of the endometrium grows.

At the end of this phase, ovulation occurs, where one ovarian follicle expels the oocyte into the fallopian tube and it travels to the uterus.


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  2. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  3. "Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology" Saunders W.B. (2018)
  4. "Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking" LWW (2016)
  5. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  6. "Endometriosis and infertility" Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics (2010)
  7. "Endometriosis Can Cause Pain at a Distance" Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada (2021)
  8. "Endometriosis" The Lancet (2004)

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