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Endometrial hyperplasia and cancer: Clinical
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In fact, estrogen has a cumulative effect throughout a female’s lifetime - so risk factors include early menarche or late menopause, both of which increase the number of ovulatory cycles, each of which contributes to a spike in estrogen.
Females who have never been pregnant are also at risk - because they don’t have a pause in their menstrual cycles.
Another risk factor is chronic anovulation, like with polycystic ovarian syndrome. That’s because the ovarian follicles keep secreting estrogen, and there’s no luteal phase progesterone to counteract its effects on the endometrium.
Iatrogenic causes include hormone replacement therapy with estrogen, as well as tamoxifen, a breast cancer medication that blocks the estrogen receptor in the breast, but stimulates the estrogen receptor in the uterus.
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