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Epstein-Barr virus (Infectious mononucleosis)
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aplastic anemia p. 429
Burkitt lymphoma p. 437
false-positive VDRL p. 146
hairy leukoplakia and p. 491
head and neck cancer p. 697
HIV-positive adults p. 174
Hodgkin lymphoma p. 436
in immunodeficient patients p. 116
labs/findings p. 720, 721
oncogenesis of p. 223
receptors for p. 163
The Epstein-Barr virus, or EBV, also known as human herpesvirus-4, or HHV-4, is an enveloped virus of the Herpesviridae family, which contains linear, double-stranded DNA.
EBV infection begins when saliva or respiratory secretions that contain the virus from one person make their way into someone else’s mouth.
Often, this happens by sharing food or drinks, or by kissing, which is why mono is sometimes called the “kissing disease” and why it is most common in adolescents and young adults, aged 15-24, because young people are often doing the smooching.
When EBV reaches the new person’s mouth, it infects two types of cells in the oropharynx: epithelial cells, which line the surfaces of the oropharynx, and B cells, which are lymphocytes, or lymphoid cells, that create antibodies to fight off infections.
In the epithelial cells, the virus undergoes the lytic cycle, whereby its DNA gets transcribed and translated by cellular enzymes, which help to form viral proteins, which are packaged into new viruses, which can leave the host cell destroyed, or lysed, and subsequently infect neighboring epithelial cells.
The infected B cells then enter the latent phase, in which the virus just sort of hangs out in the host cell instead of killing it.
The body’s immune system reacts to the infection by mounting a humoral response, whereby the B cells create antibodies to fight off the virus, and a cellular response, in which cytotoxic (or CD8+) T cells, which are lymphocytes that mature in the thymus, work to kill the infected B cells.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) also known as human herpesvirus-4, is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the Herpesviridae family, commonly known to be the cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM). It is also associated with other diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and gastric carcinoma. Most people are infected with EBV at some point in their lives. In most cases, the virus produces no symptoms and goes away on its own. However, in some people, EBV can cause serious health problems. People with IM present with fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and liver problems.
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