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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Nerve Palsies - Erb's Palsy (Waiter's tip)
Erb-Duchenne palsy, is named after the neurologists Wilhelm Erb and Duchenne de Boulogne who first described it.
In this disorder, there’s paralysis to the muscles of the shoulder and the upper arm, and it happens when the nerves that innervate these muscles are damaged.
People with this disorder have their arm stuck in a position that looks like a waiter discreetly trying to get a tip, so it’s also called waiter’s tip deformity.
Okay, so the nervous system has two parts: the central nervous system, which consists of the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which includes all of the nerves that fan out from the central nervous system.
Broadly speaking, the nervous system is split into an afferent and an efferent division.
The afferent division brings sensory information from sensory receptors in the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system, and the efferent division sends motor information from the central nervous system to organs like skeletal muscles, which causes them to contract.
Now, part of the peripheral nervous system are spinal nerves, which branch off the spinal cord.
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which are grouped into eight pairs of cervical nerves, twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves, and one pair of coccygeal nerves.
The brachial plexus is a network of spinal nerves that innervate the shoulder, arm, and hand, by supplying afferent or sensory nerve fibers from the skin, as well as efferent or motor nerve fibers to the muscles.
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