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Fibrocystic breast changes
Paget disease of the breast
Intrauterine growth restriction
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Germ cell ovarian tumor
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor
Surface epithelial-stromal tumor
Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)
Congenital rubella syndrome
Neonatal herpes simplex
Preeclampsia & eclampsia
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Hypospadias and epispadias
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Benign breast conditions: Pathology review
Breast cancer: Pathology review
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
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β -blockers and p. 247, 329
cimetidine p. 407
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome p. 483
PDE-5 inhibitors for p. 681
Peyronie disease p. 675
sildenafil p. 711
This disorder is also called impotence and like other sexual dysfunction, this condition becomes more common with age.
Sex can be important within relationships, so erectile dysfunction often carries with it emotional and psychological stigma.
In both males and females,, sexual activity involves a sequence of events called the sexual response cycle.
This cycle has four phases, excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
In males, this is called an erection.
When these reach the maximum level, it’s called the plateau phase.
Next, the accumulated sexual tension gets released during orgasm, causing ejaculation in males.
Immediately after orgasm comes the resolution phase, where the body slowly returns to its original, un-excited state.
Alright, let’s take a closer look at the penis which is made of three long cylindrical bodies: the corpus spongiosum that surrounds the penile urethra, and the two corpora cavernosa made of erectile tissue.
The corpora cavernosa are wrapped in a fibrous coat called the tunica albuginea, and each corpus cavernosum is made up of blood-filled spaces called the cavernosal spaces.
These areas are lined with endothelial cells surrounded by smooth muscle.
Running down the centre of each corpus cavernosum is a large artery called the deep artery which gives off smaller arteries that supply the cavernosal spaces.
Next, blood get drained from these spaces by small emissary veins, which drain into the deep dorsal vein.
This vein then carries the blood back into the systemic circulation.
Now, the penis receives both somatic and autonomic innervation through the cavernous nerves, which innervate both the corpus spongiosum, and the corpora cavernosa.
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