Erectile dysfunction


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Erectile dysfunction

Reproductive system

Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Erectile dysfunction


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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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USMLE® Step 2 questions

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High Yield Notes

15 pages


Erectile dysfunction

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

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A 60-year-old man comes to the urologist for evaluation of difficulty maintaining an erection for the last three months. The patient's past medical history is significant for type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure, coronary artery disease, and major depressive disorder. Medications include metformin, glimepiride, bupropion, lisinopril, metoprolol, aspirin, and atorvastatin. Family history is unremarkable. The patient smokes two packs of cigarettes daily. He does not use other recreational drugs or alcohol. Temperature is 37.0°C (98.6°F), pulse is 90/min, respirations are 20/min, and blood pressure is 120/75 mmHg. He is alert and oriented to time, place, and person. Examination of the external genitalia is noncontributory. The remainder of the physical examination, in addition to the visual field examination, is unremarkable. Neurological examination reveals a loss of vibration sense over the bilateral lower limbs with intact ankle reflexes. The patient’s symptoms are most likely associated with which of the following pathological processes?  

External References

First Aid








Erectile dysfunction p. 590

β -blockers and p. 247, 329

cimetidine p. 407

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome p. 483

PDE-5 inhibitors for p. 681

Peyronie disease p. 675

sildenafil p. 711



Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI

Evan Debevec-McKenney

In erectile dysfunction, an individual is unable to develop or maintain an erection during sex.

This disorder is also called impotence and like other sexual dysfunction, this condition becomes more common with age.

Sex can be important within relationships, so erectile dysfunction often carries with it emotional and psychological stigma.

In both males and females,, sexual activity involves a sequence of events called the sexual response cycle.

This cycle has four phases, excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

During the excitement phase, muscle tension, heart rate, and blood flow to the genitals increases.

In males, this is called an erection.

When these reach the maximum level, it’s called the plateau phase.

Next, the accumulated sexual tension gets released during orgasm, causing ejaculation in males.

Immediately after orgasm comes the resolution phase, where the body slowly returns to its original, un-excited state.

Alright, let’s take a closer look at the penis which is made of three long cylindrical bodies: the corpus spongiosum that surrounds the penile urethra, and the two corpora cavernosa made of erectile tissue.

The corpora cavernosa are wrapped in a fibrous coat called the tunica albuginea, and each corpus cavernosum is made up of blood-filled spaces called the cavernosal spaces.

These areas are lined with endothelial cells surrounded by smooth muscle.

Running down the centre of each corpus cavernosum is a large artery called the deep artery which gives off smaller arteries that supply the cavernosal spaces.

Next, blood get drained from these spaces by small emissary veins, which drain into the deep dorsal vein.

This vein then carries the blood back into the systemic circulation.

Now, the penis receives both somatic and autonomic innervation through the cavernous nerves, which innervate both the corpus spongiosum, and the corpora cavernosa.


Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get and maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. It is a common problem, affecting main people. There are many possible causes of ED, including diabetes, heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure, and low testosterone levels.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Physiology of Penile Erection and Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction" Urologic Clinics of North America (2005)
  6. "Mechanism of diabetic neuropathy: Where are we now and where to go?" Journal of Diabetes Investigation (2010)
  7. "Priapism associated with pregabalin" Urology Annals (2014)

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