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Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
Age-related macular degeneration
Retinopathy of prematurity
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
Eustachian tube dysfunction
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The ear can be broken into three sections.
And finally there’s the inner ear, which contains very special tissue structures called the cochlea which converts sound waves into electrical impulses for the brain and the semicircular canals which help with balance.
This tube has three main functions—equalizing pressure across the tympanic membrane, protecting the middle ear from reflux of fluids going up from the nasopharynx, and clearing out middle ear secretions.
Eustachian tube dysfunction describes situations when one or all of these functions aren’t happening normally.
In an adult, the eustachian tube is a roughly 4 centimeter long part-bone, part-cartilage canal that’s surrounded by four key muscles: the tensor veli palatini, the levator veli palatini, the salpingopharyngeus, and the tensor tympani, and it’s those first two that help a lot with opening up the tube.
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