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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia Causes
Warm Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (W-AIHA)
At the family medicine center, two people came in with progressive fatigue.
One of them is a 60 years old named Will whose past medical history included an aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve due to severe aortic stenosis.
There’s Hanna, a 28 years old female of African descent.
She was diagnosed a year ago with systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE. CBC is ordered for both people and it shows low hemoglobin with normal mean corpuscular volume, or MCV and reticulocyte count index over 2%.
They also have increased LDH. Now, Will has schistocytes on peripheral blood smear, while Hanna has spherocytes.
Both Will and Hannah are suffering from anemia, which is defined as lower than average levels of hemoglobin, typically below 13.5 g/dL in adult men and below 12.0 g/dL in adult women.
For children, this level varies based on the age. Now, anemias can be broadly grouped into 3 categories based on =MCV, which reflects the volume of an RBC.
So microcytic anemia is where the MCV is lower than 80 fL, normocytic, with an MCV between 80 and 100 fL, and macrocytic, with an MCV larger than 100 fL.
Normocytic anemias can be further classified as hemolytic when there’s increased destruction of RBCs, or hemolysis, and non-hemolytic when there’s decreased production of RBCs from the bone marrow.
When there’s hemolysis, the bone marrow revs up and starts pumping out immature RBCs called reticulocytes, but when there’s a bone marrow problem reticulocyte count is low.
So for your exams, it’s important to know that in hemolytic anemias there’s an increased reticulocyte production index of over 2%, while in non-hemolytic anemias it’s lower than 2%.
Alright, now hemolytic anemias can be classified as intrinsic or extrinsic hemolytic anemias.
In intrinsic hemolytic anemias, RBCs are destroyed because they’re defective, while in extrinsic hemolytic anemias, RBCs are normal but are later destroyed outside the bone marrow.
In this video, let’s focus on extrinsic hemolytic anemias that include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, macroangiopathic hemolytic anemia and infections.
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