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Anatomy of the arm
Anatomy of the axilla
Anatomy of the brachial plexus
Anatomy of the elbow joint
Anatomy of the glenohumeral joint
Anatomy of the pectoral and scapular regions
Anatomy of the radioulnar joints
Anatomy of the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints
Bones of the upper limb
Fascia, vessels and nerves of the upper limb
Joints of the wrist and hand
Muscles of the forearm
Muscles of the hand
Vessels and nerves of the forearm
Vessels and nerves of the hand
Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla
Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder
Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves
Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand
The upper limb contains an intricate metro system of blood vessels, muscles, and nerves.
These structures are wrapped up and organized into different compartments by superficial and deep fascia layers, and together they form the multifunctional upper limbs we know and love.
So let’s start with the fascia. You can think of fascia as a pair of thin stockings made of connective tissue that support and bind together different parts of the body, including the lower limbs.
Now, each upper limb actually has two pairs of stockings on top of each other: the superficial fascia, which sits right underneath our skin, and the deep fascia, which is deep to or beneath the superficial fascia, and it sits on top of muscles, organizing them into compartments.
In the upper limb, there are six fasciae to remember. We have the pectoral fascia, the clavipectoral fascia, the axillary fascia, the deltoid fascia, the brachial fascia, and antebrachial fascia.
The wrist and the hand also have fibrous band-like structures called the flexor retinaculum, the extensor retinaculum, and the palmar aponeurosis.
OK, let’s start with the pectoral fascia, which is a broad thin sheath of connective tissue surrounding the pectoralis major muscle, from which it gets its name. Medially, the pectoral fascia is attached to the sternum along with the pectoralis major’s origin.
Superiorly, it attaches to the clavicle, and superolaterally, this fascia passes over this narrow trench called the deltopectoral groove to blend with the deltoid fascia covering the deltoid muscle around the shoulder.
Fascia is a type of connective tissue that surrounds muscles, organs, and other structures in the body. It provides support and protection and helps to keep everything in its place. The upper limbs have superficial and deep fascia layers.
Superficial fascia is the closest layer to the skin, while deep fascia lies beneath it. The superficial fascia provides insulation, cushion and passageway of vessels and nerves and blood vessels, whereas the deep fascia envelopes and organizes muscles into compartments.
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